The Consumers Guide to Internet Speed
Internet service is all about speed. From upload speed to download speed, how much speed do you really need? With all the talk about Mbps, gigabit, fiber, and broadband, it’s easy to feel overwhelmed. That’s why we’ve compiled this easy-to-follow guide to internet speed to break it down and help you understand all that fast talk.
What Is Internet Speed and Why Is It Important?
Think of internet speed like water pressure: it’s all about how much volume is moving in a given amount of time. (With water pressure, it’s technically about how much volume is moving in a given amount of space, but for practical purposes, this analogy holds up.)
Computers connected to the internet transfer information to each other in electronic packets. A packet is simply a unit of data. Think of it as a drop of water. Just as more water pressure will deliver more drops of water in a shorter amount of time, a faster internet connection will deliver more electronic packets in a shorter amount of time. The volume of data transferred through a connection in a given amount of time is that connection’s internet speed.
For example, you could technically wash your hair with water barely trickling out of the showerhead, but having enough pressure to quickly rinse the shampoo out makes all the difference. As far as internet speed goes, you could technically stream a video by watching one or two frames at a time and then waiting for it to buffer for a few minutes, but nobody wants to do that. A faster internet speed will make everything you do online a smoother experience.
Testing Your Speed
Knowing your internet speed and how it compares to recommendations from internet-based services, like Netflix and Hulu, will help you get the most of these services and more.
Because speed is so vital to making your internet-dependent activities work well, you should test your internet speed regularly. You can easily test your current speed by clicking the button below.
Knowing your internet speed will also help you find the best deal on internet service because when an Internet Service Provider advertises a promotional special, you’ll have a reference point to know if the speed it’s offering is actually faster than what you already have.
Upload Speed vs. Download Speed
After you finish the speed test, you’ll see two numbers in the results: one is your upload speed and the other is your download speed. You need to understand the differences between these two speeds so you can make the best decision about what kind of internet service you want to order based on the things you like to do online.
Download speed is the speed at which information travels from a remote location on the internet to your internet-connected device. For example, if you use your phone to access Facebook, your download speed would be the rate at which the information needed to load your Facebook page travels from the Facebook server to your phone.
Upload speed is exactly the opposite. It is the speed at which information travels from your internet-connected device to a remote location on the internet. Keeping with our Facebook example, if you write a post on your timeline, the upload speed would be the rate at which the information needed to display your post to all your friends travels from your phone to the Facebook server.
Upload Speed, Download Speed, and Your Internet Activities
For the general consumer, download speeds are much faster than upload speeds. This makes sense because consumers generally download much more information than they upload. Streaming videos or music, reading a blog post, or scrolling through your Instagram feed are all activities with almost no upload needed once they’re initiated. They’re all passive applications, not interactive applications.
Upload speeds become much more important for interactive applications. While some common interactive applications, like online gaming and video chat, are better with decent upload speeds, most consumer internet services provide enough upload speed to handle these things without many issues.
Upload speeds are also critical in corporate settings. Sharing large files can require a lot of upload speed. If you need to send an image to a client for approval, you’ll want good upload speed, especially if you have multiple people doing this same thing at the same time. Also, if you make HD videos or any other type of large file and need to upload them to a server or cloud, your upload speed will come into play.
Understanding the types of things you do on the internet and the difference in upload speed versus download speed will help you pick a better internet service for those activities.
When analyzing your speed test results, you may just think the higher the number, the better the speed, but the number is not enough information. You need to pay attention to how the speed is measured, which brings us to the next section.
Of Bits and Bytes
As discussed earlier, internet speed is a measure of the rate at which information is transferred from one place on the internet to another. That measurement can be expressed in several ways, but the first step to understanding it is to understand the units of electronic information.
Electronic information is any piece of information stored or used by a computer or internet device. It tells computers what to do, what to display, and how to interact with each other. The most basic unit of electronic information is called a bit. A bit is expressed as either a one or a zero as part of the binary code that makes computers work.
In most binary code, eight bits are combined in a series, each with a value of one or zero. The combined series of bits is one byte of information.
The variation in the values of the bits in a byte determines what information that byte represents. This means one byte could represent any of 256 possible pieces of information. Those bytes can then work together to create even more variety. Nearly all electronic information—from the display on a basic calculator to the stream of an HD blockbuster—is made up of these bits and bytes.
Bits Per Second
When computers send information over the internet, that information is in bits or bytes. The bits or bytes take time to reach their destination. That time is measured in seconds. So internet speeds are measured by identifying how many bits or bytes are transferred in one second, hence bits per second, or bytes per second.
Because the bits and bytes are so small, the number transferred in a single second is almost always well over 1,000. The common practice is to express those large numbers using the metric-based prefixes: kilo for 1,000, mega for 1 million, and giga for 1 billion.
Putting this all together, internet speeds can be measured in kilobits per second (Kbps), kilobytes per second (KBps), megabits per second (Mbps), megabytes per second (MBps), gigabits per second (Gbps), or gigabytes per second (GBps).
Internet Speed Conversion Chart
Most internet speeds are expressed in Mbps. Upload speeds and slower download speeds are sometimes measured in Kbps. However, over the past decade, top-end internet speeds have increase, and the fastest internet is now often measured in Gbps.
While “bandwidth” and “internet speed” are often used interchangeably, they actually refer to two different aspects of internet service. Internet speed is the measure of how fast information is transferred, while bandwidth refers to the capacity of an individual internet connection. So if your internet connection has a bandwidth of 5 Mbps, your speed would only be that fast if it’s operating at full capacity.
Several factors can slow your internet speed from reaching its full bandwidth, but a connection’s bandwidth will always cap how fast it can transmit information over the internet. This is why Internet Service Providers list their internet services with speeds “up to” a given speed. They aren’t really advertising the speeds of their services; they’re advertising the bandwidth of their connections by informing you of the highest speed those connections are capable of transmitting.
The term “broadband” has largely been replaced by “high speed,” but this carries the same false-equivalency as referring to “bandwidth” as “internet speed”.
As internet-connection technology improved, particularly in the 1990s, it allowed the transmission of information over a much larger variety of frequencies. Thus the term “broadband” was used to describe this wide (broad) range of frequencies (bands). In the current vernacular, broadband essentially refers to any type of internet connection except dial-up, but according to the FCC, an Internet service must deliver at least 25 Mbps download speed and at least 3 Mbps upload speed to qualify as broadband.
So what are the different types of internet?
Types of Internet & How They Affect Your Speed
Internet connections come in five basic types: dial-up, DSL, cable, fiber, and satellite.
Fiber internet is the fastest widely available internet technology. It uses fiber-optic cables, which are capable of transmitting large amounts of information quickly. While fiber is fast, it isn’t available in as many areas as other types of internet. Much of the limitation in its availability stems from the high cost of creating its network infrastructure.
Cable internet uses the same types of cables that transmit cable TV services. It has broadband capability and thus can reach high speeds. It is usually available through current or former cable TV providers in their respective areas. Cable internet speeds are usually similar to DSL speeds, but can be even faster in some areas.
DSL, short for Digital Subscriber Line, uses a connection that looks similar to a phone line, but the wiring inside is different and allows for broadband transmission. This makes DSL much faster than dial-up. Current or former telephone companies that also provide internet service often use this technology, and it is usually available throughout their service areas.
Satellite internet is delivered wirelessly to the receiver, but it still requires wires to transport the signal from the receiver to different locations throughout the building. Because it’s wireless, it’s available almost anywhere in the United States. Satellite internet has bandwidth comparable to DSL and cable but can often feel slower due to latency.
Dial-up is the slowest connection technology because it can’t support broadband and thus has limited bandwidth. (See the previous section for more information about this.) Because of its technological limitations, it is almost obsolete.
Latency is the time required for a signal to travel from one computer to another computer on the network and back. In terms of internet service, latency usually means the time required for a signal to travel to the Internet Service Provider’s (ISP’s) server and back. Latency is sometimes called ping rate, which is in turn often shortened to “ping.” This is a slight misnomer because the ping is actually the signal sent to test latency, not the actual latency itself. In either case, the lower the number the better. High ping, or high latency, will result in longer wait times when information uploads to or downloads from the internet.
Satellite internet has high latency because the signal must travel to a satellite orbiting the earth and back in order to reach the ISP’s server. This distance is much farther than those of land-based internet connections. Traveling from the satellite to Earth takes more time, leading to higher latency.
Keep the strengths and weaknesses of the different types of internet in mind when you choose which service to order. Some types of internet may serve your particular needs better than others. For example, someone on a tight budget may want to avoid fiber, while someone in a remote area should focus on satellite providers.
Another thing to consider is which ISPs offer service fast enough to handle the internet activities you enjoy the most. To know that, you’ll need to find the answer to the next question in this guide.
How Much Internet Speed Do You Need?
Figuring out how much speed you need can be a difficult task, but we’ve made things simple with a helpful tool. Just click the button below to access our How Much Speed Do You Need? tool. It will ask you a few questions about your household and how you use the internet and then recommend an appropriate speed for you.
Different households can have drastically different internet needs. A single person who’s almost never home and only uses the internet to access social media won’t need much internet speed, but a family of five streaming Netflix in every room will need a lot of speed.
Click the button below for recommended speed requirements for:
To this point, this article has focused on the connection between the internet and your home or business. This section focuses on your home network.
Wi-Fi is a term for a specific configuration of router hardware and controls that allows for wireless transmission of information. It is also known as IEEE802.11. When this technology was developed, industry leaders wanted to give it a name that would help it gain popularity. They chose the term “Wi-Fi” basically because it was catchy. Subsequently, people commonly thought Wi-Fi was short for “wireless fidelity.” Although that isn’t technically correct, it has proliferated to such a degree it is often accepted as true.
Your home Wi-Fi network will also impact your internet speed. The more devices on your network using the internet at the same time, the more bandwidth you will need.
Many Internet Service Providers offer Wi-Fi networking as an option. If you want to get the most out of your internet service, we highly recommend this option. You can have your ISP’s installation technician set up your home Wi-Fi network for you. Or, if you’re more of a do-it-yourself type, check out our installation guides. Just find the one for your Internet Service Provider, and it will walk you through the process step by step.
Routers and Modems
Your modem is the gateway between your home network and the greater internet. Your router is the switchboard for all the different connections among the devices on your network. Naturally, the quality of your modem and/or router can greatly affect the speed at which your home Wi-Fi network functions.
The equipment you get from your ISP is usually sufficient for basic internet usage. But, if you want your home network to perform at its best, you may need to upgrade—especially if you have four or more devices connected to the internet.
You can find dozens of modems and routers on the market, so even after you’ve decided you need to upgrade, choosing which one to buy can be a headache. But we’ve created modem and router buyers guides to help you find the right equipment for your home network.
Now that you’ve got your hardware dialed in, you should do the same thing with your software. With so many settings to adjust, this can seem like a daunting task. But, to get the most out of your Wi-Fi network, you should make sure it’s working as efficiently as possible. Our step-by-step guide to improving your Wi-Fi speed will help you do just that.
Is Your Internet Service Provider Fast Enough?
Now that you know why your internet speed is important, how to test it, what the test results mean, how much speed you need, and how to get the most out of the speed you have, you should consider if your ISP delivers enough speed for your household.
People living in major US cities usually have at least three ISP options, and, unless you live in a very remote location, you likely have at least two. Most ISPs offer several internet packages, each capable of delivering a different level of bandwidth. If after using the How Much Speed Do You Need? tool and the speed test you find your current internet subscription is not fast enough, you should consider upgrading your package or possibly switching to another provider more capable of meeting your speed needs.
If you would like to know which ISPs are available in your area, simply enter your zip code in the box below. We’ll show you the Internet Service Providers available in your area. Then you can click to see which speeds they offer on each of their packages.
Thanks for visiting HighSpeedInternet.com to learn about internet speed. Check back every week for more articles with useful tips and information about the internet and Internet Service Providers.
Author - John Dilley
With over five years writing about the internet industry, John has developed a deep knowledge of internet providers and technology. Prior to writing professionally, John graduated with a degree in strategic communication from the University of Utah. His education and experience make his writing easy to understand, even when covering complex topics. John’s work has been cited by Xfinity.com, PCMag, The Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, and more.